Manually Apply Middlewares

The pack function can be used to manually apply Resolver Map Middlewares to Resolver Maps. This is especially useful with an existing GraphQL Handler is already setup with a Resolver Map.

Using pack with an Existing GraphQL Handler

If you are getting started and haven't set up a GraphQL handler yet, it is easier to use the library's GraphQL handler create a GraphQL handler instead.

Otherwise, if you already have a handler set up you most likely can still use it with this library if you have a Resolver Map. This library provides a pack function which takes an initial Resolver Map and applies operations against it using Resolver Map Middlewares. The result of pack is a new "packed" Resolver Map that can now be used in your existing GraphQL handler.

Here is an example that uses the third-party package, graphql-tools, and its handler.

// This example is assuming you already have a GraphQL resolver map and have an
// existing handler (in this case via graphql-tools). If this is not the case
// check out the "Creating a GraphQL Handler" documentation section to create a GraphQL
// handler with `graphql-mocks`.
import { makeExecutableSchema } from "graphql-tools";
import { buildSchema, graphql, printSchema } from "graphql";
import { pack } from "graphql-mocks/pack";
async function run() {
const graphqlSchema = buildSchema(`
schema {
query: Query
type Query {
helloWorld: String!
// This represents the original resolver map being used by your existing GraphQL
// handler and is needed for the `pack` function to apply Resolver Map
// Middlewares and Resolver Wrappers.
const resolverMap = {
Query: {
helloWorld() {
return "Hello from my first GraphQL resolver!";
// using an array of middlewares to apply
const middlewares = [];
// any dependencies that might be required by the Resolver Map Middlewares or
// Resolver Wrappers. `graphqlSchema` is a required dependency;
const dependencies = {
const packed = await pack(resolverMap, middlewares, {
// the packed result includes a `resolverMap` field that would have applied any
// middlewares. These can then be applied in place of where you would have used
// your previous resolverMap
const packedResolverMap = packed.resolverMap;
// `makeExecutableSchema` is how graphql-tools creates applies a Resolver Map
// to a Schema so that it can accept queries
const executableSchema = makeExecutableSchema({
typeDefs: printSchema(graphqlSchema),
// BEFORE using `graphql-mocks` this would have uses the original resolver map
// resolvers: resolverMap,
// AFTER, it uses the packed Resolver Map which includes the application of
// Resolver Map Middlewares and any Resolver Wrappers
resolvers: packedResolverMap,
const result = await graphql(
query {
return result;
// kick everything off
  "data": {
    "helloWorld": "Hello from my first GraphQL resolver!"