Skip to main content


These are some concepts and terms you might see when looking to mock your GraphQL API.

GraphQL Concepts

Since this library aims at mimicking a GraphQL API server it is focuses on the execution and resolution of queries. We use Resolvers and Resolver Maps to handle this execution. The graphql docs have some useful information around these concepts. With a Resolver Map, and any optional Middlewares, a GraphQL Handler be created to resolve queries.


Resolvers are functions that are responsible for returning the data for a field on a type.

For the given schema:

schema {
query: Query

# Query is the type
type Query {
# `helloWorld` is the field on the Query type that should
# resolve to a string
helloWorld: String!

A resolver function for the helloWorld field could be:

const resolverFunction = function (obj, args, context, info) {
return 'Hello world, from a GraphQL Resolver!';

This resolver function on its own isn't very useful, we need to attach it to a field on a Resolver Map. To learn more about resolvers themselves check out this part of the graphql documentation.

Note: Usually, Resolvers refer to Field Resolvers (which resolve data for a field), however, there are also Type Resolvers which instead resolve to a concrete Type for Abstract Types like Interfaces and Unions. This is covered more in the Resolver section of these guides.

Resolver Map

Resolver Maps are a collection of resolvers keyed by type and field. Here's the same schema and resolver function from above being used within a Resolver Map.

# Query is the type
type Query {
helloWorld: String!

A Resolver Map for this schema could look like:

const resolverMap = {
// Query is the first property representing the Query type
Query: {
// the `helloWorld` property on Query represents the field
// on Query, and attached to it is our resolverFunction form above
helloWorld: resolverFunction,

With a Resolver Map the types, fields, and resolvers are enough to completely resolve queries. This library provides tools to setup, extend, and organize both Resolver Maps and Resolvers.

Library Concepts

This library provides functionality to extend resolvers and make modifications to Resolver Maps.

GraphQL Conceptgraphql-mocks Concept
ResolverResolver Wrapper
Resolver MapResolver Map Middleware

Resolver Wrapper

Resolver Wrappers provide a functional way of extending and wrapping a Resolver function. Wrappers are given a Resolver and are responsible for returning a Resolver. They provide a good way of introspecting and controlling the result of a Resolver and can be applied to Resolvers flexibly using utilities like embed and layer.

Learn more about different types of Resolvers and about Resolver Wrappers.

Resolver Map Middleware

Resolver Map Middlewares apply transformations to a Resolver Map. A Middleware function is responsible for taking in a Resolver Map and returning a, potentially modified, Resolver Map. You can save these Middlewares to re-use, mix and match, and combine them for different scenarios. This is handy because for the number of mock scenarios that must be handled it's important to have declarative control over the Resolver landscape.

Learn more about Resolver Maps and Resolver Map Middlewares.


The ability to select the parts of the schema to operate on, and mock, is made easier by using the declarative Highlight system. You will most likely encounter Highlight when interacting with Resolver Map Middlewares to apply modifications to specific parts of the GraphQL Schema. This allows middlewares to work in tandem without over each other.

Using the field highlighter highlight all fields, on all types, excluding the Mutation.addUser

.exclude(field(['Mutation', 'addUser']));

Learn the basics of Highlight, the ones that are provided out-of-the-box, and how to create your own.

GraphQL Handler

This library aims at making it easy to get setup and firing off queries by including a GraphQL Handler. A GraphQL Handler will take a query and variables, and apply it against a GraphQL Schema and its Resolver Map.

Already have a GraphQL Handler setup, maybe from using graphql-tools? You can still use pack to create a Resolver Map that includes the Middlewares and Wrappers and everything necessary to pass to your existing setup.

GraphQL Paper

GraphQL Paper is a library provided by graphql-mocks but can be used standalone. It it an in-memory store for stateful handling of data based on a GraphQL Schema. It's been designed and tested to integrate with graphql-mocks to provide a complete GraphQL mocking story.

A Note on Composability

Both Resolver Map Middlewares and Resolver Wrappers are based around functional composition so that they can be applied flexibly. This flexibility is often powered by the Highlight system to selectively apply the operation to specific parts of the schema. Flexibility is considered important here because it empowers the creation of specific mock and test GraphQL APIs scenarios. This is done in a way that is easier and clearer than managing Resolvers and Resolver Maps by hand or leaving everything up to a rigidly automatic solution (which can also be codified with this libraries primitives). GraphQL Paper provides a stateful in-memory store for representing data backed by a GraphQL Schema that can be easily modified from mutations. The GraphQL Paper store can also be customized and extended with events, hooks, and custom validations.